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مطالعات تاریخ اسلام 2011, 2(7): 71-88 Back to browse issues page
The ִTughrâs of the most Stable Sadr’s in Safavid Period
Omid Rezaei
Abstract:   (1895 Views)
The purpose of this paper is to survey a black tughrâ (interconnected black signature) which was drawn above an administrative document called ‘mithâl’. This tughrâ was dedicated to sadr. Since the drawing of sadr tughrâ and its principles have not been studied by Iranian and foreign scholars, this paper‚ first presents the rules and methods of its drawing, by studying its visual and graphical aspects, i.e., [‘diplomatics’ (Pers.sanad-šenasî)‚ and second, theorizes concerning the abilities of low rank administrators of Safavid Period, based on achieved results]. One of the Safavid sadrs was Mîrzâ Habîbullâh who had the rank about 23 years (1040- 1063AH/ 1630- 1653 AD) in the period of two Safavid kings. Certainly‚ he issued lots of mithâls‚ but eleven of them which are belonged to 1041- 1060AH/ 1631- 1650 AD, are only known today and except for two‚ all of them were published. While phrase and words of Mîrzâ Habîbullâhs tughrâ were fixed along this long period‚ its graphic and technique of drawing changed. This matter makes clear that in the part of Safavid administration that he had the task of preparation and issuing mithâls and drawing tughrâ‚ there were individuals who had not the same ability and expertise. That is to say‚ while the sadr was one person‚ at least four tughrâkaš were in his service and any of them had his script and technique of drawing which was even inconsistent with the most evident principles of tughrâ drawing.
Keywords: Safavid Period, Sadr‚ Mithâl‚ Black Tughrâ‚ Tughrâ Parts, Tughrâkaš‚ Bureaucracy Body
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Islamic History
Received: 2017/08/30 | Accepted: 2017/08/30 | Published: 2017/08/30
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Rezaei O. The ִTughrâs of the most Stable Sadr’s in Safavid Period. مطالعات تاریخ اسلام. 2011; 2 (7) :71-88
URL: http://journal.pte.ac.ir/article-1-151-en.html

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Volume 2, Issue 7 (1-2011) Back to browse issues page
پژوهشكده تاريخ اسلام، فصلنامه مطالعات تاریخ اسلام A Quarterly Journal of Historical Studies of Islam
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